The study of ancient life. Under this banner come various studies, such as invertebrate palaeontology and vertebrate palaeontology, and also some of the following terms.
The study of ancient animal life.
The study of ancient plant life.
The study of footprints and other trace fossils.
The study of what happens to dead organisms before they become fossilized.
The study of the layers of sedimentary rocks, the sequence in which they were laid down, and the conditions under which they formed.
The study of the ancient landforms – the positions of the continents, the climates, and the environmental conditions at different periods of geological time.
The study of the diversity of organisms and their relationships to one another.
The practice of naming different organisms on the basis of their relationship.
The study of what animals and plants are found in different places, and why they occur there.
The study of the formation of sediments and sedimentary rocks, in which fossils are found.